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We have been working with the University of Ontario Institute of Technology (UOIT) and have completed 15 reports and 10 short feasibility studies on ammonia fuel and energy including economic, environmental and life cycle cost/benefit analysis research for all energy production and utilization technologies. Our work has been presented at numerous conferences, and published by the AIChE and multiple peer reviewed journals and publications including the recent epic 5,540 page "Comprehensive Energy Systems".

The first MITACS project with UOIT was a "Comparative study of ammonia-based clean rail transportation systems for Greater Toronto area" funded by the former Harper Conservative government.  The second, was a 239 page study, the Mitacs-UOIT-Hydrofuel Inc. final report, and the two quarterly progress reports, "MITACS PHASE 1 - Comparative assessment of NH3 production and utilization in transportation systems for Ontario". Hydrofuel Inc. funded this research and it was supported by MITACS through the Mitacs-Accelerate Program.  It was published in the Journal of Clean Energy in an article called, "Comparative Life Cycle Assessment of Various Ammonia Production Methods" and in Environmental Management in "Impact Assessment and Environmental Evaluation of Various Ammonia Production Processes" and published free under Springer Nature SharedIt.

Our second MITACS project was the 84 page, “Comparative assessment of NH3 production and utilization in agriculture, energy and utilities, and transportation systems for Ontario” and the third was the 134 page,"Comprehensive Evaluation of NH3 Production and Utilization Options for Clean Energy Applications" was used as the basis for much of the Ammonia and energy life cycle research in Comprehensive Energy Systems.

 

MITACS PHASE 1 - Comparative assessment of NH3 production and utilization in transportation systems for Ontario The MITACS Phase 1 report presents detailed cost and feasibility analyses of selected cases. The case studies included in this report are as follows: (i) high pressure electrolysis using low cost hydropower electricity and Haber-Bosch based ammonia production; (ii) high pressure electrolysis using low cost hydropower electricity, liquefied nitrogen pumping and no main compressor HaberBosch based ammonia production; (iii) ammonia production using high pressure electrolysis via low cost hydropower electricity, liquefied nitrogen pumping, liquid nitrogen vaporization using Haber-Bosch excess heat without compressors; (iv) ammonia production using thermal plasma disassociation of methane and vaporization of high pressure liquid nitrogen via excess heat in Haber-Bosch process; (v) comparison of pumped hydro storage and ammonia production using excess power; (vi) wind based electrolysis based hydrogen production with Haber-Bosch process; (vii) nuclear high temperature electrolysis based ammonia production options.
MITACS PHASE 2 - Comparative assessment of NH3 production and utilization in agriculture, energy and utilities, and transportation systems for Ontario The MITACS Phase 2 report presents detailed cost and feasibility analyses ammonia production and utilization in several sectors of the the Canadian economy.  In this first section of the final report, a comparative life cycle assessment of internal combustion engine (ICE) based vehicles fueled by various fuels, ranging from hydrogen to gasoline, is conducted in addition to electric and hybrid electric vehicles.  In the second section of this report, production of ammonia using conventional hydrocarbons is investigated by implying current technologies and developments.  In the third section, detailed cost and feasibility analyses of various key scenarios for production, storage and transportation of ammonia in Ontario, Newfoundland and Labrador, and Alberta are performed.
MITACS PHASE 3 - Comprehensive Evaluation of NH3 Production and Utilization Options for Clean Energy Applications/a> The MITACS Phase 3 report presents a detailed background information about production and utilization of ammonia and discusses several methods of alternative ammonia synthesis and compares them with conventional synthesis from fossil fuels.  The report also investigates including life cycle analysis of ammonia usage in marine, aviation, and road vehicle applications. Finally,  the report investigates the cost of photoelectrochemical hydrogen and ammonia using exergoeconomic approach and the system is scaled-up to find the total cost of hydrogen and ammonia.
Ontario Clean Gasoline Submission This report makes a case to the Ministry of Environment for ammonia as a carbon-free fuel for use in the transportation sector and giving this fuel equal consideration with all other clean fuels being considered for Ontario's new clean fuel standard.
Federal Clean Fuels Discussion Paper This report makes a case to the Ministry of Environment for ammonia as a carbon-free fuel for use in the transportation and power generation sectors and giving this fuel equal consideration with all other clean fuels being considered for the Federal Government's new clean fuel standard.
Comprehensive Energy Systems

Comprehensive Energy Systems provides a unified source of information covering the entire spectrum of energy, one of the most significant issues humanity has to face. This comprehensive book describes traditional and novel energy systems, from single generation to multi-generation, also covering theory and applications. In addition, it also presents high-level coverage on energy policies, strategies, environmental impacts and sustainable development. No other published work covers such breadth of topics in similar depth. High-level sections include Energy Fundamentals, Energy Materials, Energy Production, Energy Conversion, and Energy Management.